Document Type : Review Article


Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Alcoholic beverages are assumed to be the most popular drinks which are being consumed after water. Though for people who drink alcohol in excessive amounts longer time would be taken to become dependent in comparison with other drugs. Alcohol causes more severe medical and social harm as well as many fatal accidents for its users.
Non-medical interventions are still on the top of the list of evidence-based practices for alcohol excessive drinkers and dependents. Building motivations, enabling behavioral changes and modifying the social context are the elements of effective treatments. Then interventions like brief intervention, social skills training, motivational enhancement therapy, community reinforcement approaches, 12-step facilitation, behavioral contracting (for instance contingency management), cognitive–behavioral interventions are the most scientifically-based approaches used as treatments.
Other novel and promising approaches for alcohol and drug dependence are third wave behavior therapies especially Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. It promotes an environment to support sobriety and puts a plan into action for the client to "start living" and finally sobriety as an indirect outcome of intervention.