Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Venomous Animals and Antivenom Production, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran(Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization( AREEO), Tehran, Iran)


Background: The venom of snake (Echis carinatus) induce hemorrhage and necrosis locally at the bite site as well as acute renal failure (ARF) as a consequence of morphological and functional alterations in glomerular and tubular cells.
Objectives: It is not clear that ARF results from a direct cytotoxic effect on renal epithelia or from a renal ischemia due to systemic hemodynamic disturbances. This work investigated the in vitro effect of Echis Carinatus crude venom, using cultured Human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) mono layers as a model to see the cytotoxic effect of Echis carinatus venom.
Materials and Methods: The effect of Echis Carinatus snake venom on HEK 293 cells viability was determined by MTT assay and neutral red uptake assay. The integrity of cell membrane through LDH release was measured with the LDH Kit. Morphological changes of endothelial cells were also evaluated using a phase contrast microscope.
Results: In MTT assay, crude venom induced dose dependent cytotoxic effects on HEK 293 cells which was confirmed by neutral red assay. Crude venom caused changes in the integrity of cell membrane determined by rise in LDH release too.
Conclusions: Based on the results obtained in the present study it may be concluded that the damage induced by E. carinatus venom on Kidney is probably related to the direct effect as well as indirect effect including hypotension, hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria of this venom on kidney which may lead to Acute renal failure (A RF).


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